Breast cancer is usually diagnosed with a combination of screening methods and tissue sample analysis. Tissue samples, or biopsies are a minor surgical procedure where a small sample of the tissue and cells suspected of cancer are removed and analyzed for abnormality. Many patients will have an abnormal result during a routine screening like a mammogram and the physician will order further testing to determine the root cause of the abnormality. In many cases a biopsy will be needed to complete the diagnoses. Biopsies can be collected with a variety of procedures including fine-needle aspiration, nipple aspiration, ductal lavage, core needle biopsy and local surgical excision. When combined with radiographic imaging, these tests allow for accurate diagnoses of breast cancer. Some of the common surgical treatments include:
Most endocrinologists will try more conservative treatments before surgery. Surgery can also be used to collect biopsies or tissue samples when diagnosing an endocrine disorder. Hyperparathyroidism can only be treated with a parathyroidectomy or removal of the parathyroid. Adrenal glands may need to be removed, usually via laparoscopic surgery, if they are diseased or malfunctioning. The most common reason for the procedure is if too many hormones are being produced due to a tumor located on the adrenal. Hyperactive thyroids can be surgically damaged to reduce the amount of hormones released or removed if the gland is too diseased to function normally even with treatment.
Malfunctioning endocrine glands are typically caused by hyper or hypo activity, or being over or under active, tumors or injury. The endocrine glands produce the hormones which make the body function normally and can affect everything from energy levels to skin conditions to weight management. Some of the most common symptoms include:
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